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I S. THOMAS, THi APOSTLE OF INDIA ; 



AN ENQUIRY INTa THE EVIDENCE FOR HIS 
MISSION to THIS COUNTRr. - 



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'•^fhe Rev. Ch. EGBERT KENNET, d.d., 

^ Prineipal q^ the^S. P. G, Theological CoUege, Mcti/rtu. 
Fellow cf ike Madra$ ITniversUy. 



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MADEAS: 
^TBD BY ADDISON & CO., MOUNT BOAD. 

1882. 



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S. THOMAS, THE APOSTLE OF INDIA ; 

AN ENQUIRY INTO THE EVIDENCE FOR HIS 
MISSION TO THIS COUNTRY. 



The Rev. Ch. EGBERT KENNET, d.d., 

Prineipal qf the S, P. G, Theological College, Uadrae. 
Fellow of the lladrat UnivereUf. 



MADRAS: 
PRINTED BY ADDISON & CO., MOUNT ROAD. 

1882. 



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PREFACE. 



The interest which this little book has recently- 
attracted led to a demand for copies which soon 
exhausted the small edition of it printed about 
five years ago. In issuing a second ^dition now, 
I have made a few additions of some historical 
value which may help to make the evidence 
more complete. 

The discovery that the inscription, which sur- 
mounts the old stone cross behind the Altar in 
the Church on S. Thomas' Mount, is in the 
Pahlavi character, has been made to bear the 
assumption that the ancient Christianity of India 
owes its existence to Manichsaan agency. But 
while its early connection with Persia may be 
readily admitted, we have to wait for more reli- 
able results by further research, if such can be 
obtained, before we can admit its Manichsaan 
origin. Yet, whether S. Thomas visited this 
country and died here as a martyr (as universal 
tradition attests), or not, the discovery of a stone 
cross of supposed Manichaean origin, confessedly 
of a very much later date than the apostolic age. 



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and placed in the Church on S. Thomas' Mount 
by foreigners who could not decipher the inscrip- 
tion found on it, cannot, on fair principles of 
historical criticism be allowed to discredit the 
earlier tradition regarding the Apostle, whether 
it be considered as only probable, or as sup- 
ported by evidence amounting to historical 
certainty. 

C. E. K. 

Sullivan's Oabdens, 
June 30th, 1882. 



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S. THOMAS, THE APOSTLE OF INDIA. 

An Enquiry into the Evidence for his Mission 
to this Country, 



The mission of one of Christ^s Apostles to this 
country is an interesting subject of enquiry, and 
it seems fitting that he who was slowest among 
them to believe the Eesurrection, should have 
sought to make amends for the slowness of his 
belief by travelling farthest of them all, to preach 
the Gospel of the Eesurrection to distant nations 
of the earth who were waiting longest for its 
light. And here, in India, the existence of a 
large colony of Jews who had settled on the 
western coast, previous to the Christian era, 
would have proved an attraction to an Apostle 
who was himself of the stock of Israel, while 
the trade which was carried on at the time 
between India and Egypt would have mad& 
access to them by no means difficult of accom- 
plishment. The foundation of a Christian church 
in Malaysia is accordingly ascribed to the Apostle 
Thomas, who, after having laboured in Arabia 
Felix and the Island of Socotra, which lay in the 



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direct Hue of trade at a little distance from the 
most eastern point of the coast of Africa^ is said 
to have passed 07er to Oranganore on the west- 
ern coast of India to extend the knowledge of 
salvation. His zeal being crowned with success 
by the conversion of many Jews and heathen, 
S. Thomas, delegating the care of the infant 
church to others, is reported to have traversed 
the peninsula, and continued his Apostolic labours 
on the opposite coast at Mailapur, then a rich 
and populous city under the rule of a Hindu 
prince. From hence, where the Apostle also 
raised a church, he extended his labours yet 
further eastward and reached, according to some 
writers, the distant city of Pekin in China, 
whore he likewise preached the Gospel and 
formed a church. From China, if he ever went 
there, S. Thomas having returned to Mailapur, 
is found to have been so eminently successful in 
establishing the Christian faith, that he became 
exposed to the intense hostility of the Brahmins, 
who at length stirred up a tumult against the 
Apostle which issued in his martyrdom. A 
crowd having rushed upon him with stones, 
one at last thrust him through with a lance 
on the 21st December a.d. 68 at a spot in 
the neighbourhood of Mailapur still venerated 



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as S. Thomas' Mount. " That it is really the 
place/' observes Bishop Heber, " I see no good 
reason for doubting ; there is as fair historical 
evidence as the case requires, that S. Thomas 
preached the Gospel in India, and was martyred 
at a place called Mailapur." [Journal, vol. 
iii., p. 212. Ed. 4th]. And Dr. Buchanan, 
expresses his conviction "that we have as 
good authority for believing that the Apostle 
Thomas died in India, as that the Apostle Peter 
died at Rome.'' [Christian Researches, p. 1 34, 
Ed. 5th]. It is also interesting to note that 
so eminent an oriental scholar as the late Pro- 
fessor H. H. Wilson, while identifying the 
Mihildropya of the Hitopadesa with Mailapur 
or S. Thome near Madras, accords its value to 
the tradition which gives S. Thomas to India 
as its first Apostle. He says : " we need not 
be much at a loss for its identification, as the 
name approaches sufficiently to Mihilapur, 
Meliapur or S. Thome, where our own records 
indicate a city of some consequence, in the begin- 
ning of the Christian era, as the scene of the 
labours and martyrdom of S. Thomas, occurrences 
very far from invalidated by any arguments yet 
adduced against the truth of the tradition."^ 
[Transactions of the R. A. 8oc. vol. i. p. 161]. 



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We will, therefore, now collect the evidence 
which exists for believing the mission of the 
Apostle to India. — 

And I. It is not a mere isolated or local 
tradition on which this fact depends. As Asse- 
mann, an Orientalist of the highest authority, 
states the matter : " That S. Thomas was the 
Apostle of the Indies is attested by all ecclesi- 
astical records — Greek, Latin, and Syriac.'* 
[Dissert de Syro-Nestorianis, torn, iv., p. 439]. 
The Ghaldean ritual celebrates the Apostle thus : 
'* By the blessed S. Thomas the Chinese and 
Oushites were converted to the truth. By the 
blessed S. Thomas the Indian idolatries were 
dissipated. By S. Thomas they received the 
virtue of baptism and the adoption of children. 
By him the kingdom of heaven penetrated into 
China/' [Kesson's " Gross and the Dragon,^^ 
pp. 4-5]. 

And the belief of Syrians, Arabs and Arme- 
nians, who have from time immemorial visited 
the shrine of S. Thomas on pilgrimage is not, 
we may suppose, to be lightly rejected. It 
was visited even by the ambassador of Alfred 
the Great from England, as we find recorded 
in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ; '^ This year 
[a.d. 883] Sighelm and Athelstan carried to 



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Rome the alms which the King had vowed to 
send thither and also to India to S. Thomas and 
to S. Bartholomew" [p. 357 Bohn's ed.]. This 
fact is also mentioned by William of Malmesbury 
[De gestis Reg. Ang. vol. ii., c. 4. p. 44] ; and 
the historian Gibbon, after alluding to the event, 
remarks in a note, " neither the author of the 
Saxon Chronicle nor William of Malmesbury 
were capable in the twelfth century, of invent- 
ing this extraordinary fact ; they are incapable 
of explaining the motives and measures of 
Alfred ; and their hasty notice serves only 
to provoke curiosity." [c. xlvii. p. 838.] 
Curiously enough we find in the " Ancient 
Accounts of India and China by two Mahom- 
medan Travellers," of this very period the ninth 
century, mention made of a place on the coast 
corresponding to Mailapur, which they name 
Betuma evidently a corrupt form of Beit-Totima, 
meaning both in Arabic and Syriac, the House 
or Ohurch of S» Thomas. [See Renaudot's 
translation with notes p. 10. Notes, p. 17]. 

There is also independent and unequivocal 
evidence of the presence of Christianity in 
India, if not in the Apostolic age, at least 
from the time immediately subsequent to it, 
and, what is more to the point in hand, it is 



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8 

••xpressly ascribed by early Christian writers 
to the successful labours of the Apostle S. 
Thomas. 

In a paper on ''the Jews of Malabar/' in 
vol. vi of the Asiatic Journal [New Series, 
1831], some remarks made by Mr. 0. M, Whish 
may here be introduced bearing on the early 
appearance of Christians in this country. He 
combats the assertion made by Mr. Wrede in 
the Asiatic Researches, that " the Christians 
of Malabar settled in that country during the 
violent persecution of the sect of Nestorius, 
under Theodosius the second or some time 
after ;" and endeavours to establish, by fixing 
the date of arrival of the Jewish colonies in 
India, that the Christians of the country were 
-settled long anterior to the period mentioned 
by Mr. Wrede. Among other things stated 
by Mr. Whish, it is aflSrmed by him that " the 
•Jews themselves say that Mar Thomas, the 
Apostle, arrived in India in the year of our 
Lord 52, and themselves, the Jews, in the year 
'69 ; and if we consider the extent which the 
colony had attained at the period of this grant 
of indulgences [viz,, that recorded in the cop- 
per-plates of the time of Cheran PerumaV], their 
arrival at that early period is rather to be con- 



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sidered necessary than merely not improbable/*^ 
[^Asmtic Journal, vi, p. 10] • 

II. But be this as it may^ the chain of evidence 
in favour of the Indian Apostleship of S. Thomas ia 
strong and continuous from the very earliest times. 

In A.D. 190, the celebrated Pant^nus who- 
presided over the Alexandrian School [ap. 
Euseb. Eccl. Hist.] and travelled from Syria 
to India, is reported to have "found his own 
arrival anticipated by some who were acquainted 
with the Gospel of Matthew, to whom Bar- 
tholomew, one of the Apostles, had preached^ 
and had left them the same Gospel in the 
Hebrew, which also was preserved until thia 
time.'* This statement, at any rate, implies an 
apostolic origin for the Christianity of India. 

In the Paschal Chronicle is a fragment of a 
work of Bishop Dorotheus [bom a.d. 254] 
in which he relates the acts and joumeyinga 
of the Apostles, and this is what he says of S. 
Thomas: "The Apostle Thomas, after having 
preached the Gospel to the Parthians, Medes^ 
Persians, Germanians Can agricultural people 
of Persia, mentioned by Herodotus, I. 125), 
Bactrians and Magi, suffered martyrdom at Cala-^ 
mina a town of India.'^ I quote from Cave's 
Histmia Literaria, p. 107, 108. Colon 1720. 



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10 

S. HiPPOLYTUS Bishop of Portus, who flourished 
about A.D. 220^ has a memorandum to the same 
effect^ for in recording the countries, to which 
the Apostles were scattered^ it assigns India to 
Bartholoview, and Albanus a city in Armenia 
for the scene of his martyrdom ; to Thomas it 
gives Parthia, Media^ Persia, Hyrcania, the 
Bactri, the Mardi, and Galamina, a city of India, 
for the place where he suffered death, [De Duo- 
decim Apostolis, Ed. Pabr. Append, p. 30]. 

In A.D. 325 at the great Council of Nicaea, 
John, Bishop of India, was present, and his' 
name stands among the subscriptions to its 
canons, thus, " Johannes, Bishop of India 
Maxima, and Persia.^^ 

Philostobgius, an Arian writer, informs us of 
a Missionary with the surname Indicvs (6 'IvSos), 
who, on visiting his native land and other parts 
of the Hindu Peninsula, was not surprised to 
meet with fellow-Christians, whose peculiar rites 
attested their antiquity, as well as their compa- 
rative isolation from Christendom at large. The 
date of this testimony is about the year 350. 
(Hardwick's " Christ and Other Masters.'' Pt. II. 
Hinduism, c. ii, p. 180. C.K.S.). 

S. Gebgoby Nazianzen [a.d. 370] witnesses 
for the belief of the Oriental Church. When 



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11 

answeriDg the reproach of his being a stranger 
he says : — " What I were not the Apostles stran- 
gers ? Granting that Judaaa was the country of 
Peter, what had Paul in common with the Gen- 
tiles, Lake with Achaia, Andrew with Epirus, 
John with Ephesus, Thomas with India, Mark 
with Italy ?'' [Orat. 25 contra Arian] . 

S. Jerome [a.d. 390] for the Western Church 
speaks of the mission of S. Thomas to India as a 
fact universally known and believed in his time. 
He even mentions Oalamina as a town in India 
which was the place of his death. [Catal. Script : 
Eccl. I. 120]. So also in Epist. LIX ad MarceU 
lam, he writes : " The Son of God remained there 
with the Apostles for forty days after His resurrec- 
tion, at the same time that he was with the angels 
in the bosom of His Father. He was present in 
all places, with Thomas in India, with Peter in 
Rome, with Panl in Illyria, with Titus in Crete, 
with Andrew in Achaia, and with every preacher 
of the Gospel in all the regions they traversed.'' . 

Thbodobbt the Church Historian [a.d. 430] 
in speaking of the preaching of the Apostles 
indicates the belief handed down regarding S. 
Thomas : " They have induced not only the Ro- 
mans and those who live under their emperors, 
but also, the Scythians, Sarmatians, Indians, 

2 

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12 

Ethiopians, Persians, Seres, Hyroanians, Bri- 
tons, Cimmerians and Germans to receive the 
law of the crucified Saviour ; and in short have 
preached to all nations and to every class of 
men/* [Sermon 9, p. 125]. Theodoret, it is 
tru3, speaks of the Apostles in general, but S. 
Thomas is the one to whom the mission to 
India has mostly been ascribed, and the learned 
Baronius observes, justly enough, that to S. 
Thomas alone can his words apply. [Annales. 
anno 44, No. 33] . But what makes this appli- 
cation more than probable is that Church 
historians, who have followed Theodoret, take 
it for granted that S. Thomas is the Apostle 
signified. For Nicephorus in the same manner 
declares S. Thomas to be the Apostle to the 
Indians [Hist. Vol. II. c. 4], and Oaudentius 
says, like Sophronius, that he died in India at 
the town of Galamina [Serm. 17]. But what is 
decisive of the point is that Theodoret himself 
in another place after saying that Thomas had 
baptized Parthians, Persians and Medes^ adds 
'^ the Brahmansy Indians, and other furthermost 
nations had received the faith from him J* 
(De veritate Evang. lib. 9). 

S. Gbboory of Tours [a.d. 544-595] relates 
that ^' in that place in India where the body of 



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Thomas lay before it was transported to Edessa^ 
there is a monastery and a temple of great size 
and excellent structure and ornament. In it 
God shows a wonderful miracle ; for the lamp 
that stands alight before the place of sepulture 
keeps burning perpetually, night and day, by 
divine influence, for neither oil nor wick are ever 
renewed by human hands ;'^ and this Gregory 
learned from one Theodorus who had visited the 
spot. [Colonel Yule's Marco Polo. Vol. TI. p. 293] . 
In A.D. 547 we have Cosmas Indicopleustes, 
a monk from Alexandria who travelled in India^ 
bearing express testimony to the existence of 
the Christian Church of this country. In his 
account of his travels, he says : — " There is in 
the Island of Taprobane (Ceylon) in the further- 
most India, in the Indian sea, a Christian Church, 
with clerics and faithful. I know not whether 
there are any Christians beyond this island. In 
the Malabar country also, where pepper grows, 
there are Christians, and in Calliana, as they call 
it, there is a Bishop who used to be consecrated 
in Persia." * 

* In Taprobana insnla ad inter iorem Indiam, nbi Indioam 
pela^ns extat, eucclesia Christianoram babetar nbi olerioi et 
fideles rdperinntur j an nlterius etiam ignoro. Similiter in 
Male ut vooant (nnde Malaba) nbi, gignitur piper. In CcU- 
liana vero, (sic nnncupant) episoopas est, in Peraide ordinari 
flolitns." 



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14 

The names MaM aod Oalliana fix the locality 
beyond doubt. Male in the language of the 
country signifies pepper^ from which product the 
region of Malabar notoriously has its appella- 
tion.* With regard to Oalliana, it has been 
conjectured that it is identical wifch Oalicut op 
Quilon, spelt also sometimes Ooilan. But it is 
more probable that the Oalliana of Cosmas is 
the ancient city of Oalianapore, of which some 
tnins are said to be still in existence near the 
sea coast, two day's journey to the north of Man- 
galore. See Paulinu9, India Orientalis Chris- 
tiana p. 14 : Rom» 1 794 [Le Bas' Life of Bishop 
Middleton, vol. I. p. 265]. I may add that the 
district between Bombay and Groa used to be 
known by the name Oalliana, and that it is pro- 
bable that the Indian Christian settlements were 
at the time of Cosmas' visit further north than 
they are now. The circumstance that they had 
their Bishop from Persia is a curious confirma- 
tion of the Nioene subscription already adduced^ 
and perfectly harmonizes with the Persian names 
found in the (later) Sasanas in the possession of 
the Christians of the Western Coast. 

• Bp. Caldwell, however, decides on philological groands, 
that ** the form of the word is evidently identical with the 
Tamil mateit a hill, the hill country-, a word which would be 
m common use then, as now, among the Tamil settlers in 
Ceylon." (Compar. Grammar; p. 23). 



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15 

There is a curious proof of the wide prevalence 
of the early tradition of S. Thomas^ being the 
Apostle of India, in the " Lives of the Cambro- 
British Saints/' published by the Welsh MSS. 
Society in 1858. In the ''Life of S. David'' 
(from the MS in the Cotton Library in the Bri- 
tish Museum, collated with a MS at Jesus Coll. 
Oxford), speaking of the saint's death, it is said, 
that he was taken to glory, to a place *' where 
Mary is with the virgins, where Peter is with the 
apostles, where Paul is with the Greeks, where 
Thomas is vnth the Lidians, ^c." p. 417. 

III. To continue the chain of testimony, we 
have statements of European travellers to India 
of much interest, as showing the undiminished 
strength of the traditionary belief and the exis- 
tence of a Christian church and community on 
the spot which helped to keep it alive. 

The celebrated Venetian Marco Polo (a.d. 
1220) relates that "the body of S. Thomas the 
Apostle lies in this province of Maabar* at a 
certain little town having no great population ; 
'tis a place whither few traders go, because 

• Madbar is the Arabic name for Coromandel and South 
Travancope, signifying trajectuSy i.e., passage or conntriev 
near the passage between Coromandel and Ceylon — a name 
not to be confounded vnth Malabar ^ as it has been by some 
writers. 



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16 

there is very little merchandize to be got there, 
and it is a place not very accessible.. Both 
Christians and Saracens^ however, greatly fre- 
quent it in pilgrimage. For the Saracens also 
do hold the Saint in great reverence, and say 
that he was one of their own Saracens and a 
great prophet, giving him the title of Avarian 
which is as much as to say ^Holy man\'^ 
Book iii, ch. xviii. (Col. Yule'a ed. vol. II. 
p. 290). He also speaks of certain houses belong- 
ing to the church and of certain Christians who 
kept it. 

About the time of Marco Polo's homeward 
voyage> John of Monte Corvino on his way to 
China stayed for 1 3 months on this coast, and 
speaks of the church of S. Thomas at Mailapur 
where he buried the companion of his travels. 
Friar Nicholas of Pistoia. (Col. Yule's Marco 
Polo. vol. ii. p. 293). 

Odoric of Portenau (a.d. 1818) in his Itinera- 
rium mentions that he found beside the church 
*' some 1 5 houses of Nestorians,'' but the church 
itself filled with idols. (Ibid). 

Johannes de Marignola of the Fratres Minores 
sent out as Legate of the Pope and who stayed 
at Quilon full 14 months about a.d. 1840 visited 
the church of S. Thomas at Mailapur. He men- 



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17 

tioDS what he had seen and heard, in an out-of-the 
way book, the Ohronicon Bohemioe. He says he 
saw a vineyard and a beautifal church at Mail&- 
jixxv, (p. 98) ; and after giving an account of the 
legend of S. Thomas as usually related, (p. 110) ; 
he records the tradition, " Thomas de Jerusalem 
de Juda Parthos, Medos et Indus convertit, in 
Mirapoli IndidB superioris occiditur, ibi adhuc 
sanguis ejus cernitur/* (p. 262). Though Rufinus, 
Who went to Syria in a.d. 371 and resided there 
twenty-five years, mentions that the remains of 
S. Thomas were brought from India to Edessa 
and deposited there (which according to the 
chronicle of Edessa took place in a.d. 394), it is 
quite possible that the translation was that of a 
part of them only, and that there were other 
relics of the Apostle still preserved in India to 
which John of Marignola alludes. 

CoNTi, in the following century, speaks of the 
church in which S. Thomas lay buried, as large 
and beautiful, and says there were ] 000 Nesto- 
rians in the city. 

Joseph of Granganore, the Malabar Christian 
who came to Europe in 1501, speaks like Marco 
Polo of the worship paid to the Saint even by 
the heathen, and compares the church to that of 
S. John and S. Paul at Venice. 



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Certain Syrian Bishops sent to India in 1504, 
whose report is given by Assemanui, heard thafc 
the church had begun to be occupied by some 
Christian people. But Babbosa, a few yeara 
later found it half in ruins, and in the charge of 
a Mahomedan Fakir who kept a lamp burning. 

The account of the Apostle^s niartyrdom was 
no doubt that current among the native Chris- 
tians, for it is told in much the same way by 
Marignola and by Barbosa, and was related also 
in the same manner by one Diogo Fernandes, 
who gave evidence before the commission of 
Duarte Menezes, and who claimed to have been 
the first Portuguese visitor of the site. (See 
extract from De Couto in Valentyn. v. p. 382). 
Col. Yule's Marco Polo. vol. 11- pp. 293, 294. 

This brings us to the period of the Portuguese 
possession of the place, and we need not enter 
into a discussion of the genuineness of the relics 
which were discovered by them and are still 
preserved in Goa. 

I have, however, reserved to the close a re- 
ference to the Apocryphal History of the 
Apostles, by Abdias, who lived at the end of 
the first century. The work ascribed to so early 
a writer has undoubtedly been greatly interpo- 
lated, but the legend of S. Thomas contained in 



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it has been so remarkably confirmed by recent 
researches, that it acquires a value whicb other- 
wise might not have been accorded to it. The 
history of Abdias was published for the first time 
by Wolfgang Laziiis, under the title of AbdioB 
£ahylonice, Episcopi et Apostolorum Discipuli, 
de Hwtoria certaminis Apostolici, lihri decern ; 
Julio Africano Interprete, Basilise 1552. In it 
S. Thomas is said to have received, while at 
Jerusalem, a Divine command to go to India in 
order to show the light of Truth to that people 
still sitting in darkness and the shadow of death. 
*'Now I myself,'^ writes Abdias, "recollect 
having seen a certain book in which the voyage 
of S. Thomas to India and the things he did in 
that country are described/^ And he then goes 
on to narrate the whole history of the Apostle's 
labours and martyrdom. But what lends a pecu- 
liar interest to the legend is that he names 
Oondaphcyrus as the Indian king at the time of 
S. Thomas' visit to India. The existence of a 
king under this name has recently been ren- 
dered indisputable. The discovery is due to 
M. Reinaud, member of the Institute, and a 
learned Orientalist, who expresses himself thus 
in a Mimoire published in 1849 : — 

"Amongst medals recently discovered, may 



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■*T ■ 



20 

be mentioned some of the Indo-Scythian kings 
who reigned a short time after Kanerkes in the 
valley of the Indas^ and especially those of a 
prince named Oondaphorus. There are medals 
of the same kind in the National Library at 
Paris : and according to a tradition which ascends 
to the very earliest ages of the Christian era, 
the Apostle S. Thomas went to preach the Gospel 
in India and suffered martyrdom on the coast of 
Coromandel. 

" Now the acts of the life of S. Thomas which 
are extant both in Greek and Latin, mentioned 
a king named Oondaplu)ru8, According to these 
Acts^ S. Thomas, being at Jerusalem, embarked 
at the nearest port, and arrived on the coast of 
the Peninsula of Hindostan. Thence he travelled 
into the interior, and visited a King named 
Oondaphorus who embraced Christianity ; and 
after that he went to another province of India 
where he received the crown of martyrdom. It 
will be seen that this narrative is in no way 
incompatible with that transmitted to us by 
tradition, and indicated also by archssological 
monuments/' [p. 95]. 

It is a curious coincidence that in a Tamil * 
manuscript professing to be a translation from 
the Latin, which was found among the Mack- 



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enzie MSS., and is described in Vol. I. of the 
South India Christian Repository for 1837 
(pp. 263 — 266), the king of Mailapur bears the 
Tamil name of Oundapa Raja ; but it is probabJe 
that the Latin legend had borrowed the name 
Oundaphorus from Abdias, and connected it 
with incidents related of the Mailapur king, 
which the Tamil translator reproduced in a 
Tamil form. Abdias, as an Oriental may have 
been out in his geography in the selection of a 
royal narae which was known as that of an Indian 
king in his parts, though he makes the martyr- 
dom of the Apostle to take place in another 
province of India than that which was subject 
to Gundaphorus, and so far accords with the 
southern traditions. But the writer in the 
Christian Repository informs us that '^ the exis- 
tence of such a chieftain as Gundapa Raja seems 
tolerably well authenticated,^^ and, if so, the 
similarity of names is rendered all the more 
remarkable. 

Such is some portion of the cumulative evi- 
dence I have been able to collect from various 
sources, which seems to establish the Apostleship 
of S. Thomas to India as a fact of history. It 
will be necessary, however, to ascertain the value 
of a supposition which was entertained by 



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Tillemont, La Croze and other later writers who 
maintain that it was not the Apostla, but Thomas 
the disciple of Manes a.d. 277^ that first preached 
Christianity in India. But there are two reasons 
which invalidate this supposition^ and render it 
untenable. Firsts the constant tradition^ which^ 
as we have seen is entirely for the Apostle ; and 
secondly, because Epiphanius, in his history of 
Manes and his disciples, says that he fled not 
into India, but into Judcea, where he was taken 
by the King of Persia. (Epiphan. I{, 629). 
We are also told by Epiphanius that Manes on 
his arrival at Cashar, found there/ Bishops, 
Presbyters, and Deacons, with a large body of 
orthodox Christians, who banished him for hia 
heresy. This flourishing and active Christian 
community surely implies the introduction of 
Christianity at an earlier period, much anterior 
to the year 277, and the evidence adduced for 
the mission of the Apostle S. Thomas to this 
country remains, therefore, unimpaired by the 
supposition of the rival claims of a Thomas tho 
disciple of Manes, and must be valued by its own 
accumulated weight. 



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APPENDIX. 



I am indebted to my friend Dr. A. Burnell for 
the following Hymn from the Mozarahic Breviary, 
edited by Cardinal Lorenzana in 1775. 



In Festo 8a/ncti Thomce Apostoli — ad Vesperum. 

Hymnus. 

Festum^ Christe Bex^ per orbem, 
Inluxit almificnm^ 
In quo tibi oonfitetnr 
Cuncta cohors fideliam 
Gloriam'^ persolvunt hymnnm 
Pro triumphis Marty rum. 

Gloriosus^ ecce^ tnnsque 

Thomas Discipulus, 
. Cicatrices contractando^ 

Creditus est Dominus ; 

Inter fratres gloriosus 

Extitit Apostolus. 



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Nuncius venit de India 
Quserere artificem : 
Architectum construere 
Begium palatiam : 
In foro deambulabat 
Cunctorura venalium. 

Habeo servum fidelem^ 
Locatus est Dominus^ 
Ut exqairis talem, aptum 
Esse hunc artificem : 
Abbanes videns, et gaudens, 
Suscepit Apostolum. 

Traditur Regis Ministris 
Sanctus Dei Apostolas : 
Bliophorum ingressus, 
Suscepit convivis ; 
Digna sui percussoris 
Beddita est ultio. 

Rex ut vidit, et audiv^it 
Insigoe miraculum 
Juvenes, ut benedicat^ 
Supplicanter postulat ; 
Sic Baptismo candidates 
Gonsecrat velamine. 



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Gundaphorus Rex Indorum, 
Iniquus ac perfidus, 
BomaBorum more, sibi 
Volait palatiam ; 
Hujas opns construere 
Praecipit Apostolo. 

Sed beatus^ atqae sanctus 
Didymus Apostolus 
Erogando Regis auram 
Construit palatiam, 
Rntilum, coruscum gemmis. 
In supernis sedibus. 

Carcere mox Rex Abbanem 
Trusit cum Apostolo 
6ath infirmus Regis frater 
Migrat ab hoc saeculo ; 
Coelo ductus vidit dignum, 
Fratrisque palatium. 

Angeli expetunt Christo ; 
Ut resurgat mortuus ; 
Gundaphoro reddat aurum ; 
Emat oedificium, 
Et resolvat vinculatum 
Domini Discipulum, 



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niico sai^ens^ exponit 
Sacrum Begi ordinem^ 
In carcerem deinde petit^ 
Ejicit Apostolum^ 
Obsecrant undique fratres 
Yeniamque criminum. 

Nunc Thomas m campam vocat 
Populos Indianicos ; 
Lapidem coDScendit altum ; 
Corda muloet gentium ; 
Per Baptisma poUicetur 
Yeniam peccaminum. 

Indiam superiorem 
Yisitans adgreditur 
Dogma Christi preedicando, 
Fnndavit Ecclaesiam^ 
Infinita per Baptisma 
Conseci*avit millia. 

Mira quippe^ ac stupenda 
Faciens miracula 
SinticaBque restauravit 
Gorporalia lumina ; 
Laticis perfundit undam 
Illam et Mindoniam 



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Christiana jam probata 
Regis uxor Treptia 
RegiMim Christ! concupiscens^ 
Respuit terrestria ; 
Ulcerosas scaber 
lit sanetur^ postalat. 

Precibus ThomaB a Christo, 
Angelas dirigitur 
Exnit in parte totam 
Ulcerosam tunicam ; 
No78d cutis indumenta 
Vestivit corporese. 

Tempi um Solis comminutum 
Corruit cum idolo ; 
Ac metallam pretiosum^ 
Solvitur in pulverem ; 
Rex illius civitatis, 
Fugit cum Carisic). 

Tunc sacerdos idolorum 
Puribundus astitit, 
Gladio transverberavit 
Sanctum Christi martyrem 
Glorioso passionis 
Laureatum sanguine. 



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beata inter omnes 
Edessena eivitas^ 
Quoe plgnas suscepit almum^ 
Domini Discipalnm^ 
Ubi corpus reqaiescit 
Cum honore conditum. 

Inde cuncti te precamur 
Snmmi Patris filinni^ 
Mitte nobis de supemis 
Invictum auxilium : 
Ut credentes evadamus 
Eternura suppliciura. 

Ut sub uno cuncta cohors 
Conjuncta fideliurn 
Te sequamur, te canamus, 
Te fruamur perpetim : 
Humili confessione 
Proclamemus gloriam. 

Grioria Patri, &c. 



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A LIST OF BOOKS REUTING TO THE CHRISTIANS OF 

S. THOMAS, OR THE SYRIAN CHURCH 

OF MAUBAR. 



1. Assemanni Bibliotheca Orientalis. — Tom. iv. 

pp. 391— 407; 435—451. 

2. Gonvea (P. Antonio de) Jornada do Arcebispo 

de Goa Dom Frey Aleixo de Menezes 
Primaz da India Oriental quando foy as 
Serras do Malavar, y Lugares em que 
morao os antigos Christaos de S. Thome— 
Synodo Diocesano da Igreia e Bispado de 
Angamale, &c. — 1 Vol. sm. folio. Coimbra 
1606. 

[The same ' translated into French ; 
"Gonvea Histoire Orientale, toum6e en 
Francois, par P. Jean Baptiste de Glen.'* 
En Anvers, I'an 1609]. 

3. G^ddes' History of the Church of Malabar. 

—London. 1694, [pp. 448]. 

4. Baulin. Historia Ecclesiae Malabaricae 

Romae. 1745. 
6. La Croze. Histoire du Christianisme des 
Indes. 2 Vols. l2mo. La Haye 1758. 



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30 

6. Asiatic Researches. Vol. vii. pp. 364 sq, — ^P. 

Wrede, Esq., '* Account of S. ThomS 
Christians on the Coast of Malabar.'* 

7. Christian Knowledge Society's Report for 

1810. — No. \v. some Account of the So- 
ciety's Missions for the year. pp. 187 — 192. 

8. Dr. Claudius Buchanan's Christian Researches 

in India.~pp. 106—145. Ed. 5th. 

9. Thomas Yeates' Indian Church -History: 

published by Maxvirell. London. 

10. Bp. Middleton's life by Le Bas. Vol. i. ch. 

ix — xii. Rivingtons. 1831. 

11. Bp. Heber's Journal. Vol. ii. with Appendix. 

12. Archdeacon Robinson's Last Days of Bp. 

Heber. Appendix, pp. 30 — 57. Madras, 
1829. 

13. Madras Literary Society's Journal.— Vol. i. 

[1834]. Archdeacon ELobinson's "His- 
torical Account of the Christians on the 
Malabar Coast " in 4 Parts. 

14. Captain Swanston's Memoir— Journal of the 

Royal Asiatic Society for 1834. 

15. Professor Lee's " Brief History of the Syrian 

Churches in the South of India ;" pub- 
lished in the Church Missionary Society's 
Seventeenth Report, Appendix.— iv. 

16. South India Christian Repository. — Vol. i. 



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31 

pp. 2(>3— 266. Vol. ii. pp. 189—206. 
Madras, 1837, 1838. 

17. Kmgli's History of Christianity in India.— 

Vols. i. and ii. and Appendix to Vol. iy. 
(containing the Syrian Litorgies). 

18. Btheridge's Syrian Chorches, their Early 

History, litargies and literatare^ — Demy 
12mo. pp. 538. Longmans. London. 

19. Colonial Church Chronicle. — Vol. viii. pp. 

1—8. "The Christians of S. Thcwnas.'' 

20. Church Missionary Intelligencer^ — Vol. i. 

The Malabar Syrian Church. — No. 2. pp. 
42—46. No. 3. pp. 68—70. No. 4. pp. 
94—95. 

21. Jacob Canter Visscher^s Letters from Mala- 

bar. Edited by Major Heber Drury. — 
Letter xvi. pp. 100—109. Madras, 1862. 

22. Francis Day's Land of the Perumals, or 

Cochin, Its Past and Present. — Ch. vi. 
Christianity in Malabar, pp. 211 — 265. 
Madras, 1863. 

23. Rev. G. B. Howard's '^ Christians of S. 

Thomas and their Liturgies." Parkers, 
Oxford and London, 1864. 

24. Rev. Edavalikel Philipos' Syrian Christians 

of Malabar, Edited by the Rev. Q. B. Ho- 
ward. — Parkers, Oxford andLondon, 1869. 



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32 

25. Lives of Indian Missionaries^ C. K. S. 3rd 

Series pp. 53 — 66 Bp. Middleton. 

26. Rev. J. A. Lobley's ^^ The Church and the 

Churches in Southern India." The Mait- 
land Prize Essay for 1870. Deighton^ 
Bell and Co. 

27. Rev. R. Collins' Missionary Enterprise in 

the East. London. King, 1873. 

28. Rev. T. Whitehouse's Lingerings of Light in 

a Dark Land. London. Hamilton and 
Adams 1873. 



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